Thursday, February 20, 2020

Justice vs Drug Companies in the USA Research Paper

Justice vs Drug Companies in the USA - Research Paper Example   Research suggests that off-label prescribing of pharmaceutical drugs can result in exaggerated and untested claims by the drug manufacturer (Conko 2010, 2).   Although the use of drugs for purposes other than their originally intended use can provide many medical benefits, it can develop into an accepted mode of expanding the use of pharmaceuticals beyond the appropriate scope of their health benefits; moreover, this practice may result in unwanted and unforeseen health effects. The FDA has a formal ban on off-label product promotion, but this is often sidestepped as anecdotal reports of health benefits associated with off-label drug use are promoted in labeling and promotional advertising. These practices have created considerable confusion among health consumers who are the misleading product labels and inadequate instructions on the proper use of medications, their potential side effects and health risks   Some legal commentators have cited the extravagant internet adverti sing of pharmaceuticals as an important expansion of promotional strategies that often neglect to clearly state the label properties and risks associated with the use of a specific drugSection 502 of the Food and Drug Act deals specifically with issues of misbranding and false or misleading label practices by pharmaceutical companies. According to its provisions, a pharmaceutical drug label is considered at issue if any part of the label is misrepresented or misleading. This pertains to ingredients, quantity, source and packaging details.

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Descartes vs Spinoza Comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Descartes vs Spinoza Comparison - Essay Example Descartes states that the human being is made up of a body and a soul that are two distinct parts and relate to God and the world in different ways (2). On the other hand, Spinoza teaches that there is only one God. Spinoza identified that God could be defined by his existence or conceivability (1). This means that God exists but He has no form and human beings can only conceive Him in the natural environment. Thus human mind can only work to explain the existence of God who was inseparable from nature. Descartes' treatise suggests that the soul is separate from the body since they are supposed to perish separately (8). Descartes buttresses his point that the body is ruled by the mind. He stated that the mind is independent and separate from the body (18). It implies that the human mind is susceptible to illusions which could be true or false (Descartes 19). Descartes therefore states that there are uncertainties and limitations of the human thought (19). He asks a rhethorical questi on about whether the existence of God is a figment of our minds or not (19). This suggests that there is a possibility that there is no God (Descartes 24). He puts forward the possibility of an antithesis that human beings have the power to change everything around them (Descartes 24). Spinoza differs from Descartes and argues that things in nature had a finite existence but the infinite existence of God was the absolute affirmation (5). This therefore means that everything that exists in nature is just an extension of God whilst God Himself is an absolute and All-Powerful Creator. Spinoza identified two main forms of ignorance. He stated that the first form is the belief in idols like the worship of trees and other humans (5). He also saw the independence of divine knowledge from human knowledge that Descartes proposed as a form of ignorance (5). Descartes supports his assertion that the mind is capable of making independent decisions and people cannot imagine the corporeal. Thus t he physical things around us exists independently of the human mind. He states that matter changes from solid to liquid and to gas using the example of wax which is put into fire. This illustration hints that human beings can use empirical studies to improve their lives (Descartes 31). This thinking supported science and the independent study of things in the natural environment. These were areas of knowledge that hitherto were often banned by the Catholic Church. Based on this teaching, everything in nature was to be studied differently based on how the mind perceives it. Each and every item is to be singled out and evaluated from a very individualistic point of view. This kind of independent examination of substances gave room for scientific methods and enquiries in science like chemistry and pharmacy. On the opposite side of the scale, Spinoza argued that nature and God are essentially the same. He stated that substances can be conceived externally but God could not be conceived by human beings. As such, human scholars could only act in an effort to understanding the way God operations. The definitions of the things are meant to provide a better understanding of how God operates. From Spinoza's point of view, science was a process that was meant to study what exists in nature as a method of understanding the Creator. In other words, nothing in the

Monday, January 27, 2020

Bay Of Pigs Historiography

Bay Of Pigs Historiography March 1960 marked the future of international relations between the United States and Cuba. The epic battle at the Bay of Pigs defined irrationalities between the two nations. U.S. President of the time, Dwight D. Eisenhower, ordered the central intelligence agency, otherwise known as the CIA, to use their special activities division to train, equip, and lead Cuban exiles in an invasion of Cuba. This was elaborately planned to overthrow the new communist government led by Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz. Eisenhower justified his cooperation for his opposing position stating it was the policy of the United States to aid the anti-Castro guerrilla forces. The original CIA plan called for a ship-borne invasion at the old colonial city of Trinidad, Cuba. Trinidad had good port facilities, and arguably was close to much existing counter-revolutionary activities. The CIA later proposed alternative plans, and on March 11, 1961 President Kennedy and his cabinet selected the Bay of Pigs option. Dur ing the invasion Kennedy decided not to send the air support to Cuba, for it would cause Soviet Russia to believe the United States was only a vicious world leader, giving them liable reason to attack America. However troops did not respond well to Kennedys decision since Castro took that moment to capture U.S. Military officials. The catastrophe was solely blamed on the president at the time. Like several times in history, the United States claimed it was their duty to set democratic policies in the small but important country; spreading a peaceful and efficient government gave people equal rights and laws all the while separating the elite government officials from the common population. Furthermore Castro would be unable to harm the people of Cuba if he were no longer in power, thus decreasing the illegal immigration from Cuba to America. As far as the United States was concerned it was necessary for the invasion to set some standards of living in the troubled country. However like all wars or arguments there is an opposing side and Cuba was not concerned with the same matter. Castro was furious his own people were invading their homeland. Unfortunately because he was the highest authority at the time, he initially ordered those few individuals to be exiled. The people of Cuba wanted freedom and support from a government that was anything but just. The communist country made no attempts to help its people , when concerned with gaining higher power. Castro was looked down upon as a dictator of the time despite his disapproval of dictatorships. The Cuban government order of battle is unclear and subject to dispute, although most sources generally credit Fidel Castro with centrally directing the overall strategy from Havana. Today the Bay of Pigs invasion is once again looked through two different perspectives. The United States is content in believing their decision to invade was correct and history has obviously repeated itself with the recent war in Irag and the decision to invade Pakistan. However there are several controversial theories claiming President Kennedy did not in fact order the cease of the air support. Many historians believe the CIA went against official government orders and took it upon themselves to delay the message to aircraft transporters. John F. Kennedy may simply be the innocent by-standard that issued a command that small, tangent groups refused to follow. The argument once again has an opposition, and Castro-followers believe Kennedy and Castro might have been in a secret society together; somewhat of a masonic cult of their own. Conspiracies continue to arise throughout our modern historical perspectives yet our history cannot be rerecorded. Of course relations between the United States and Cuba only became worse with the Cuban Missile Crisis and extend to sour interactions into present day history. Today Cuba and America are far from cooperating neighbors and the battle continues. Until Castros recent exit from the Cuban government office in 2008 and the reelection of the United States President, both nations have constantly vowed to fight until the end. We ceased trade with Cuba while they released all of their fugitive prisoners to contribute to the illegal immigration overload in America. They have waged vengeance upon each other like angry siblings without parental supervision. Even as a leading world power the American government has done little to compromise and solve the international affairs. With the hope of a new government in control of both countries, the history is at chance to change for the better and one day prosper as an ally.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

A Comparison of the Sea in Beowulf and The Seafarer Essay -- compariso

The Sea in Beowulf and The Seafarer      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The characters in the Old English poem Beowulf certainly delighted in the seas. This essay seeks to compare their attitude toward the sea with that expressed in another Old English poem, The Seafarer.    In Beowulf there is one reference after another to the sea. When Scyld died, â€Å"his people caried him to the sea, which was his last request,† where he drifted out into the beyond on a â€Å"death ship.† In the Geat land Beowulf, a â€Å"crafty sailor,† and his men â€Å"shoved the well-braced ship out on the journey they’d dreamed of,† to rescue the Danes from Grendel. â€Å"From far over the sea’s expanse,† the Geats came, â€Å"brave men who come over the sea swells.† In his welcoming speech Hrothgar recalls that the hero’s father â€Å"sought us Danes over the rolling waves,† and his warrior Unferth remembers that the hero â€Å"struggled with Brecca [youthful companion] in the broad sea in a swimming contest †¦ risked his life in the deep water †¦ hugged the sea, gliding through the boiling waves †¦ toiled seven nights in the sea.† A Dane â€Å"was tending to every courtesy† for Beowulf, for â€Å"such in those days could a seafarer expect.† King Hrothgar and Queen Welhtheow gave rich gifts â€Å"to those on the mead-bench who made the sea-journey.† In the Finnburh Episode, Hengest had to spend the winter months with Finn because â€Å"he could not steer his ring-prowed ship on the cold sea.†Ã‚   â€Å"Guthlaf and Oslaf spoke of their grief after the sea-journey.† The Danes carried Hildeburh, the queen of Danish ancestry, â€Å"over the sea.† â€Å"The surging waters† received Beowulf as he swam in pursuit of Grendel’s mother. During the battle Hrothgar and his retinue stared down at the â€Å"turbulent water.† Finally Beowulf returned, â€Å"protector... ... A man may bury his brother with the dead and strew his grave with the golden things he would have him take, tresures of all kinds, but gold hoarded when he here lived cannot allay the anger or God towards a soul sin-freighted.      The Seafarer concludes with a rather lengthy prose exhortation to his heareres to fix their hopes on heaven.    The characters in the Old English poem Beowulf certainly delighted in the seas. From this essay it can be appreciated that their attitude toward the sea is quite comparable with that expressed in another Old English poem, The Seafarer.       BIBLIOGRAPHY    Chickering, Howell D.. Beowulf A dual-Language Edition. New York: Anchor Books, 1977.    TheSeafarer. In The Earliest English Poems, translated by Michael Alexander. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Addiction to Intoxicants

II. Intoxication conceptual analysis Intoxication is the acute state of physical and cognitive impairment caused by drinking alcohol or being exposed to a psychoactive drug. Intoxication typically has both physical and mental effects, which can include difficulties with controlling movement, mood changes, impairment of cognitive skills, impaired judgment, impaired impulse control, and changes in interpreting your surroundings or the behavior of others.These changes and impairments may be  reinforcing, and may be perceived as amusing by the intoxicated person and/or their companions, but they increase the person's vulnerability to a wide range of problems, including violence, sexual assault, accidents, and misadventure. Although the term â€Å"intoxication† is most commonly used to refer to the acute (immediate or short-term) effects of alcohol, intoxication may also be used to refer to the effects of other drugs, including amphetamines, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, hallucino gens, inhalants, opioids, phencyclidine, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics. We can define intoxication as in . eneral condition of diminished mental and physical ability hyperexcitability, or stupefaction induced by intake of alcohol or other narcotic  substance Intoxication is a condition that follows the administration of a psychoactive substance and results in disturbances in the level of consciousness, cognition, perception, judgement, affect, or behaviour, or other psychophysiological functions and responses. The disturbances are related to the acute pharmacological effects of, and learned responses to, the substance and resolve with time, with complete recovery, except where tissue damage or other complications have arisen.The term is most commonly used with regard to alcohol use: its equivalent in everyday speech is â€Å"drunkenness†. Alcohol intoxication is manifested by such signs as facial flushing, slurred speech, unsteady gait, euphoria, increased activity, volubility, disorderly conduct, slowed reactions, impaired judgement and motor incoordination, insensibility, or stupefaction. Intoxication is highly dependent on the type and dose of drug and is influenced by an individual's level of tolerance and other factors. Frequently, a drug is taken in order to achieve a desired degree of intoxication.The behavioural expression of a given level of intoxication is strongly influenced by cultural and personal expectations about the effects of the drug. As a result of consuming alcohol, an intoxicated person does not have the normal use of physical or mental faculties. There is no single scientific measure that determines whether a person is intoxicated, since intoxication is an observed state. Therefore, determining whether a person is intoxicated requires observing a person’s mental and physical state, and comparing that state and observed behaviour to a normal person in full possession of his or her faculties.Now a days intoxiation is generally found among teenagers and children attaining maturity. Irony is this most of them know it’s ill effects but still they do just for their mental pleasure or may be by personal deviance. Mostly comparing himeslf from others that if they can do , why not me. III. TYPES OF INTOXICATION 1. Alcohol intoxication 2. Narcotic inoxication 3. Cocaine intoxication 4. Drug overdose 5. Inhalant abuse Alcohol intoxication Alcohol intoxication  (also known as  drunkenness  or  inebriation) is a physiological state induced by the consumption of  alcohol.Problems accumulate when alcohol builds up in the  bloodstream  faster than it can be metabolized by the  liver. Some effects of alcohol intoxication are central to alcohol's desirability  as a beverage  and its history as the world's most widespread  recreational drug. Common effects are  euphoria  and lowered  social inhibitions. Other effects are unpleasant or dangerous because alcohol affects many dif ferent areas of the body at once and may cause progressive, long-term harm when consumed in excess. Narcotic intoxication Narcotics are medicines used to decrease or take away severe pain. Narcotics may also be called opioids.Some common names of narcotics ordered by a doctor are codeine and morphine. Heroin is an illegal street drug that is made from morphine. The more commonly known drugs withinthis group are opium,  morphine, heroin,  codeine, andmethadone  (a synthetic narcotic). Cocaine intoxication Cocaine intoxication  refers to the immediate effects of  cocaine  on the body. Although cocaine intoxication and cocaine dependence can be present in the same individual, they present with different sets of symptoms. Cocaine increases alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, energy and motor activity, feelings of competence and sexuality.Common side effects include anxiety, increased temperature, paranoia, restlessness, and tooth grinding. With prolonged use, oft en accompanied by lack of  sleep, the drug can cause  itching,  tachycardia,  hallucinations, and  paranoid delusions. Possible lethal side effects include rapid heartbeat, tremors, convulsions, markedly increased core temperature, heart attack, stroke and heart failure. DRUG OVERDOSE The term  drug overdose  (or simply  overdose  or  OD) describes the  ingestion  or application of a  drug  or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended  or generally practiced. 2]  An overdose may result in a  toxic state  or  death. Drug overdoses are sometimes caused intentionally to commit  suicide  or as  self-harm, but many drug overdoses are accidental, the result of intentional or unintentional misuse of medication. Unintentional misuse leading to overdose can include using prescribed or unprescribed drugs in excessive quantities in an attempt to produce  euphoria. INHALANT ABUSE Inhalants  are a broad range of  drugs  whose v olatile vapors are taken in via the  nose  and  trachea. They are taken by room temperature  volatilization or from a pressurized container (e. g. nitrous oxide), and do not include drugs that are sniffed after burning or heating. Inhalants can be classified by the intended function. Most inhalant drugs that are used non-medically are ingredients in household or industrial chemical products that are not intended to be concentrated and inhaled. A small number of recreational inhalant drugs are pharmaceutical products that are used illicitly. Some of the inhalant abuse are acetone which is used in nail polish, whitener is also used as addictive substance. Why do people intoxicate Intoxication is not a new problem or area to discuss. he main problem is intoxication among youths,teenagers,children attaining maturity, why they are addicted to intoxicants? Why these addiction? Not all drug and alcohol users will become addicts, but they are at risk. Some can overcome it, others no . An exposure to this danger is increasingly occurring at earlier ages: the door is open with the first sip and the pleasure comes to neccesity. Nearly 15% of individuals who â€Å"try† alcohol develop a dependency to it, and become alcoholics. Boys and girls in their adolescence consume on intoxication just to satisfy their needs either mentally or physically. hey all know that what are the bad effects and what are the disadvantages still they knowing all the facts. Experimentation with alcohol during the teen years is common. Some reasons that teens use alcohol and other drugs are: * curiosity * to feel good, reduce stress, and relax * to fit in * to feel older From a very young age, kids see advertising messages showing beautiful people enjoying life — and alcohol. And because many parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner. boys and girls in their adolescence consume alcohols just to satisfy their needs either mentally or physically. hey all know that what are the bad effect and what are the disadvantages still they consume alcohols knowing all the facts. They do so specially because of peer presure ,they are frightened that if they do not accept their group's qualities whether it is good or bad then they wont be allowed in their friend's circle,and once they are excluded from that group then they won’t be able to adjust themselves into other group since they are teengae they don’t know the consequences of their activities. they will do that work in which they will get their own satisfaction their own enjoyment and their own hapiness. nd these things they will get by that group because they are getting what they want and so they dont want to leave that group inspite knowing that their are some bad consequences too. Teens see their parents enjoying a cocktail after work or having a glass of wine at dinner. Drinking comes to represent a very sophisticated and adult thing to do  mom and Dad do it†¦ why shouldn’t I? the teen may reason. They think that there is no one to stop them they think that if drinking is that bad then why my mom and dad are consuming it. So if they are consuming it then what’s the problem I am consuming it.Due to societal influence addiction to intoxication initiated through personal deviance also like when they are depressed, who have low self-esteem, and who feel like they don't fit in or are out of the mainstream. They feel like after consuming alcohol they will get over from their sorrow,frustration and humiliation. And to get rid of it they always like to be alcoholic. IMPACT OF ALCOHOL Alcohol has wonderful anxiolytic properties and people drink alcohol very often because they are stressed and alcohol quite nicely provides the temporary illusion that such stress has dissipated when it fact it has just been temporarily put on hold.Quite often, however, drinking alcohol acts to exacerbate stress in the long run because rather than dealing with the stressful situation, the drinker will often drink to escape the stress, thus prolonging that which is actually stressing them. Moreover, alcohol has been proven to heighten anxiety among those who drink, when they are not drinking it. This, in turn, promotes further drinking which in turn begets further anxiety and really it is just one vicious cycle. Weekends are usually treasured by most teens, as they are looking forward to their big plans.Some may be chilling with friends, catching a movie, going to a concert, or planning to party. Regardless of what they have planned, one thing is for certain; alcohol will be a part of many teens weekend plans and there's research to prove it. As children move from  adolescence  to young adulthood, they face major changes not just developmentally, but emotional and physically. The transition into puberty and adolescence brings about a desire for independence. Many teens turn to  risk taking  and experimenta tion as they navigate through their rite of passage into adulthood, which can lead to drinking.Many teens don't think there's anything wrong with drinking. They've made it into an acceptable activity that they engage in when they're out with their friends, and since they may not drink every night, they don't see the potential harm that it's doing. developmentally teens remain in that imaginary stage that â€Å"bad stuff can't happen to me because I am invincible. †Ã‚   But we know it does†¦ Plus, many teens don't have the ability to see the long-term consequences that drinking can bring. There are many factors that lead to teen drinking.If you ask a teen why they drink you may give you a litany of reasons from: â€Å"I was bored. † â€Å"Everyone else does it. † â€Å"I like how it makes me feel. † â€Å"People like me when I drink because I act different. † â€Å"I just wanted to see what it would make me feel like. † â€Å"My  pare nts  do it so it must not be a big deal. † â€Å"It helps me escape reality. † Effects of alcohol Alcohol damages almost every organ in the body, including the brain; because of the cumulate ive toxic effects of chronic alcohol abuse, the alcoholic risks suffering a range of medical and psychiatric disorders.Alcoholism has profound social consequences for alcoholics and the people of their lives. Long-term alcohol abuse produces physiological changes in the brain such as  tolerance  and  physical dependence. Using alcohol at a young age has negative health effects. Brain Development and Alcohol Abuse * Research indicates that the human brain continues to develop into a person's early 20's, and that exposure of the developing brain to alcohol may have long-lasting effects on intellectual capabilities and may increase the likelihood of alcohol addiction. * The age when drinking starts affects future drinking problems.For each year that the start of drinking is del ayed, the risk of later alcohol dependence is reduced by 14 percent. Drinking and Driving * Car crashes are the leading cause of death among people ages 15 to 20. About 1,900 people under 21 die every year from car crashes involving underage drinking. * Young people are more susceptible to alcohol-induced impairment of their driving skills. Drinking drivers aged 16 to 20 are twice as likely to be involved in a fatal crash as drinking drivers who are 21 or older. Suicide * Alcohol use interacts with conditions like depression and stress, and contributes to an estimated 300 teen suicides a year. High school students who drink are twice as likely to have seriously considered attempting suicide, as compared to nondrinkers. High school students who binge drink are four times as likely to have attempted suicide, as compared to nondrinkers. * Sexual Behavior * Current teen drinkers are more than twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse within the past three months than teens who don' t drink. * Higher drinking levels increase the likelihood of sexual activity. * Adolescents who drink are more likely to engage in risky sexual activities, like having sex with someone they don't know or failing to use birth control.Other Risks * Teens who drink alcohol are more likely than nondrinkers to smoke marijuana, use inhalants, or carry a weapon. * Binge drinking substantially increases the likelihood of these activities. Alcohol addction is not just related to common people,teenager and but many big filmstars and big personality are also addicted to it. The bollywood personalities who have lost their life due to alcohol consumption are Rajesh khanna (first super star of bollywood) Meena kumari The beautiful actress of iconic film Pakeeezah,  was died  due to liver cirrhosis. due to alcohol abuse. Guru dutt, because of alcohol . uthor who have died because of alcohol Jean stafford. People who are living in polar region they usually consume alcohol to keep their body war m. But they are not addicted because it’s their necessity through which they make themselves suitable to live in cold environment. They take it in a limited quantity just to continue their livelihood. We can take the example of Indian Army which are posted in leh and ladakh and which is the coldest place in india and so the indian soldier consume alcohol to make their body warm. Some of the devotee of shiva say our shiva drinks then it’s not bad to drink because we are his followers. nd we should follow our guru. But the real thing is it is just an excuse nothing else. They take the defence of religion to hide their addiction. It’s just an excuse and excuse has no base. The shifting composition of Indian drinkers has seen a rise in the number of Indian women drinking regularly and heavily. One recent study in the southern state of Karnataka found young women consumed similar amounts of alcohol to young men on any typical drinking occasion. Narcotic intoxication effects Narcotic abuse is when you continue to use narcotics even though they are hurting you or others.The more commonly known drugs within this group are opium,  morphine, heroin,  codeine, and methadone  (a synthetic narcotic). In addition, Darvon   7and Talwin7 are included in this group because of their narcotic-like action. Next to cocaine (discussed later),heroin is the most popular narcotic drug because of its intense euphoria and long-lasting effect. It is far more potent than  morphine  but has no legitimate use in the United States. Heroin appears as a white, gray, or tanfluffy   powder. The   most   common   method   of   using heroin is by injection directly into the vein, although it can be sniffed.Codeine, although milder than heroine and  morphine, is sometimes abused as an ingredient in cough syrup  preparations. Users may experience sleepiness, nausea, and vomiting shortly after taking a drug. Most narcotics are considered highly addicti ve, and their abuse tends to lead to long-term dependence and severe withdrawal symptoms and supervising opium cultivation and thereafter, procuring opium from the cultivators. Drug abuse Young people are very gullible and vulnerable to the influences of society, their friends, TV, adults, and those that appear to be fashionable.Hence, a youth may find that all his friends have experienced the use of drugs, and now he is feeling left out because everyone else appears to be having a good time, and all his friends tease him that he is â€Å"chicken†. This unsuspecting youth then decides to ‘experiment' only once, ‘just to try it out. † Furthermore, if he does not have money to buy the drugs, someone may even offer it to him for free. What he does not realize, is that his first weakness, to please his friends, is the biggest mistake that he can ever make. The strategy of the drug dealers is to get as many customers as possible.Some drug dealers are so ruthless that they give out free sweets containing drugs to school children. The trick that they use is to give free drugs to unsuspecting people. Once a person becomes addicted (hooked) he becomes a customer for life. The addicted person will then beg, borrow, steal, prostitute themselves, just to make sure that they have money to buy drugs for their next fix. It is a vicious cycle of crime, prostitution, family breakdown, social breakdown, community breakdown. It is for this reason that intoxicant is known as the source of all evils, Islamicaly termed as the   Ã¢â‚¬Ëœmother of all evils’. ere are many types of drugs available on the market. The general effect of all drugs is basically very similar, though they differ in their speed of action as well as the severity of the harm on the body. All drugs directly affect the brain, since this is the only way of causing mood changes. Some examples of drugs are as follows: 1. Heroin, (upper drug): highly addictive opiate; gives very high rush, followed by many hours of fogginess; the addict lives day to day for the next fix. 2. Marijuana, (downer drug): affects the parts of the brain that deals with emotions and memory. 3.Alcohol, (downer drug): impairs judgements, memory lapses, blackouts. 4. Cocaine, (upper drug): whether in powder form or crack, it is a highly addictive stimulant; addict loses interest in school, family, work, etc. 5. Vapor Inhalants (downer drug): (glue, petrol, hair spray, paint thinners, etc. ) destroy the protective layers around the brain cells. Harmful effects of drugs  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Physical effects: The brain is the most delicate and powerful computer- it is an amazing organ, with virtually limitless potential- it is a Gift from Allaah; it has to be protected and cherished and its full potential must be utilized.The moment any person takes a drug into the body (either by nose, mouth or vein) the drug enters the blood stream and goes directly to the brain, crosses the blood-b rain barrier (BBB) and occupies various receptor sites in the brain. This leads to alteration in the chemical and electrical neuronal functioning of the brain which also leads to eventual organic damage to this delicate, yet powerful organ. These changes in the brain is what causes the state of ‘addiction'- eventually, the body automatically starts craving for the damaging drug leading to a vicious cycle of abuse and further damage.However, other body organs that are damaged include the following: damaged nasal septum; collapsed ; clotted veins; kidney, liver ; lung failure to various degrees; damage to the brain; infected needles causes Hepatitis Infection and HIV/AIDS.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Social effects: The person indulged in the usage of intoxicants displays anti-social behavior such as: staying away from home; stealing; crime; job loss; withdrawal from community; embarrassing behavior in public; deterioration in relationship with parents or wife or children.The m ost harmful effect of drugs is on the brain. INHALANT ABUSE The younger generation is rapidly getting addicted to smoking, liquor and even drugs. What is more shocking is the usage of wide range of substances being used by youths which include inhaling whitener, spirit, petrol, iodex, besides smoking costly cigarettes and getting addicted to alcohol and gutka laced cold drinks. Although, there is no demarcated area or locality which could be identified as more or less in the grip of this menace, youths residing in the areas ocated close to slums, interior colonies and those habited by the lower income group people are more vulnerable of being grabbed in the clutches of this dreaded practice. The addiction could be anything from consuming Iodex pasted on bread to drinking laboratory sprit which they call turatithe name derived from the time duration it takes to intoxicate the addicted and minimal price in which it is available. But, what forces the youths to get addicted to such subs tances, is a big question in store. Peer pressure, boredom, frustration, academic and parental pressures, even genetic factors and lack of emotional support are some of the reasons that make the youth go astray and seek temporal solace in the world of intoxicants,† says Prof Deepa Punetha, a faculty in the department of psychology, Allahabad University. Teenagers, who feel unwanted or fail to adjust themselves in the society, too, wander into the world of addictive substances, she adds.The easy availability of such products, too, gives a fillip to such products. Scores of `paan' shops can be seen in the proximity of educational institutions in the city. Then, the liquor shops have started coming up in residential areas which lure young minds towards them. There are occasions when youngsters, under peer pressure, fall in the vicious circle of tobacco and drugs. What we see today is school kids standing on `paan' shops and smoking costly cigarettes.Among other things, `whitener' (a stationery product) is being used as a form of addictive substance. Since, it is cheap and easily available, many youngsters are getting addicted to it. the primary contents of whitener and diluter are alcohol they are being increasingly used by youngsters for intoxication. Once they are combined with the other chemical acetone present in the whitener and diluter they depress the central nervous system of the body.For some moments, it puts an addict on a high but it has serious consequences in the long run. Prolonged use of these chemicals may result in blindness, diabetes, kidney disorder and cancer also. † IV. Preventive measures Parents can prevent their children from using drugs by talking to them about drugs, open communication, role modeling, responsible behavior, and recognizing if problems are developing Alcohol advertising and promotion is rapidly expanding throughout the world and is increasingly sophisticated and arefully targeted, including to youth. It is aime d to attract, influence, and recruit new generations of potential drinkers despite industry codes of self-regulation that are widely ignored and often not enforced. India is projected as a market with huge potential for the Alcohol Industry resulting in an increased market presence of the industry with their undesirable marketing and promotional activities.India spends about 244 billion rupees each year to manage the direct cost of alcohol use, which is more than the excise earned. (WHO, 2006) It urged the Government of India to adopt and implement the global strategy in order to complement and support public health policies and to mobilize political will and financial resources to reduce harmful use of alcohol. Effective solutions lay in sustainable action, requiring strong leadership, a solid base of awareness, political will and commitment.Public health strategies that seek to regulate the availability of alcohol; reducing the impacts of marketing, including surrogate advertiseme nts, particularly to adolescents, young people and women; mobilising communities to adopt effective approaches to prevent and reduce harmful use of alcohol; reducing the public health harm and social consequences from alcohol intoxication and consumption of illicitly produced alcohol; pricing policies that can be used to reduce underage drinking, halt progression towards drinking large volumes of alcohol and/ or episodes of heavy drinking.Mindful of the present realities, challenges and a lack of a national policy, the workshop Urges the Government of India to formulate a National Alcohol Policy. Programmes have been initiated in the areas of alternatives to drug use, voluntary or governmental. Parent-teacher associations have yet to take roots within the school systems in the country; hence there is a great need for specially designed educational programmes for children. The same holds true for school health and education programmes. Some of the following steps can be taken for pri mary prevention of drug abuse: Research and surveys on drug abuse;Drug education of secondary school and college students, teachers and parents; Dissemination of information on the dangerous effects of intoxicant substances by radio, television and films and discussion of the social consequences in conferences and seminars in educational institutions; and ‘Family life education’ which envisages the provision of community based services to prevent drug abuse by education of parents and children and offering counselling and guidance to drug- prone individuals within the family setting.The National Anti-Drug Strategy focuses on prevention and access to treatment for those with drug dependencies, while at the same time getting tough on drug dealers and producers who threaten the safety of our youth and communities. It is made up of three action plans: * The  Prevention Action Plan  which aims to prevent illicit drug use * The  Treatment Action Plan  which aims to tr eat those with drug dependencies; and * The  Enforcement Action Plan  which aims to combat the production and distribution of illicit drugs. There are many NGO’s who prevent addiction of drugs and alcohol.By the government of india smoking in public area has been said as an offence. And it has been as a punishable crime. Also the government of india had also made a law that a children below 18 years of age cannot be applied to any job regarding production of tobbaco and selling of it. Gutka production and selling has also been baned by the government of india and this has alo been made a punishable crime. Conclusion & Suggestion from the above statement we can here by conclude that intoxication has become a very big issue of our country. ntoxication has covered a measure population and still branching itself in most part of the country. Government is also trying their best and is making their best effort eliminate the problem from the root. They have made many laws and ma king intoxication as a crime. It has been said that â€Å"the best prevention is early  intervention†, but by this time it is too late, the person has already started. If the progress of alcoholism can be stopped early in its course, then great individual and family disruption can be avoided.National efforts at prevention of alcoholism include education at all levels, increased publicity and the creative use of media sources. Such efforts have already influenced nicotine addiction in older smokers; although the message of nicotine’s harmful effects are just beginning to impact teenage smokers. But alcohol and other drug programs   do have clear, positive effects, and prevention activities continue to be applied at local and national levels with different strategies for different target groups.However, as with most things, prevention starts with the individual. APPENDIX-1 INTERVIEW 1 Date : 18. 04. 2013 Name : ARUN KANODIA place : contacted in person Age : 35 Sex : MALE Occupation : ADVOCATE IN PATNA HIGH COURT QUESTION 1: In your view why the consumption of intoxication is prevalent in youth or teenagers? ANSWER: By seeing others, they think if they can do then why not me.They are also capable of doing this they also want to show as if they are adult so this kind of tedency develop inside them. And they are at the verge of maturity so they don’t know the consequence. QUESTION 2: what role society play in making the youth drifted towards intoxication? ANSWER: Society plays a great role , because teens see that most of them is intoxicate and they are doing it without any hinderance as no one is there to stop them and no one is saying, protesting. everyone is free to do by his her own will.This attitude motivate them towards intoxication. QUESTION 3:why youth take the consumption of intoxication very casualy? ANSWER :Because they think drinking, smoking is cool. This will show their status this will show their class. while poor people ta ke it because of their social problems and they are so addicted that even if they are knowing about it’s effects then also they won’t bother about their life, they will just go on. People take it causally because they havn’t seen yet the extent of effects of intoxication.They think it’s okay if they will die but they don’t realise that not only them but the person also get effectd by their act. They don’t care about others. they care about their own happiness, own pleasure. QUESTION 4: what are the preventive measures taken by the society till today? ANSWER :Till now only law has been made to prevent this , and violation of these laws will lead to punishment nothing more than that. There is lack of man force to prevent this. Same police is appointed for stoping any aggitation, to be the body guard of VIP person, to maintain peace in crowd like in puja’s, election.So how can the same police can do lots of thing. They are also negligent in their part like ok if he has violated the law then he must be punished only, not to do more than that to prevent that such things in future. So a strong law should be made. QUESTION 5:what should be the preventive measure should be taken to eradicate the consumption of intoxication in near future? ANSWER:Government should completely stop giving licence to these people to run liquor shop, or to sale tobbaco because at the same time they are saying say no to tobacco.Tobbaco is injurious to health and same time they are giving license to run this because they are taking tax from these people which will be benefical to them so profit is on the side of government. Loss is also there because by consuming this people are getting health issues like cancer and many more so for this treatment government is making hospitals for it. And appointment of doctors also take a large amount of money. APPENDIX-2 INTERVIEW 2 Date : 18. 04. 2013Name : GIRDHAR PRASAD place : contacted in person Age : 43 Sex : MALE Occupation : POLICE QUESTION 1: In your view why the consumption of intoxication is prevalent in youth or teenagers? ANSWER : They consume because think it’s classy and they want to prove infront of their circle that they are very advance and adult. They do it for fun and they are much more adult and they want to prove that they can drink or smoke without any hindrance. QUESTION 2: what role society play in making the youth drifted towards intoxication?ANSWER : They look after their neighbor who consume alcohol and smoke cigarette and they get fascinated and they try for their pleasure. They think no one to stop them , then who would like to stop them too. QUESTION 3: Why youth take the consumption of intoxication very casually? ANSWER : They consume alcohol too much that they become habituated of it and finally they get addicted. They think this is this the life they are living with full freedom, no hindrance, and they follow the policy of whatever they have t o face they can face it easily.QUESTION 4: What are the preventive measures taken by the government till today? ANSWER : Steps taken by govt. to eliminate intoxication from india Govt. has made an act that there should not be any participation of children below the age of 18 in respect to production n sale of tobacco. Smoking in public area has been made an offence and fine is applicable if one is caught doing this crime. Govt. has increased the rate and taxes so that people consume less tobacco and alcoholic product.QUESTION 5:What should be the preventive measure should be taken to eradicate the consumption of intoxication in near future? ANSWER : People should be educated from beginning about the ill effects of intoxication and what are the several disadvantages of smoking and consuming alcohol. APPENDIX-3 INTERVIEW 3 Date : 18. 04. 2013 Name : PUNSCHA place : contacted in person Age : SINCE 2005 QUESTION 1 : In your view why the consumption of intoxication is prevalent in outh or teenagers? ANSWER : They do it because of mental pressure, generally because of self low steem, they are immature in nature in nature. They start by seeing other teenager and peoples of their group and think other teenager have got enough freedom then why can’t they. they start smoking and drinking by seeing them and later join their group and become addicted to it. QUESTION 2: why youth take the consumption of intoxication very casually? Because of their family like in upper class those who are rich . smoking and drinking is normal in today’s arena. ven during their party and functions they arrange the facility to drink and smoke. And thus by seeing those party teenagers of high class family start intoxication just as their do and also parents of this class don’t have time to see what their children are doing. So teenager take it casually. Now in lower class family parents are always engage to earn some money so that they can feed their children and because of this they don’t have time to look after their children and so the children start consuming alcohol without letting their parents know they are alcoholic. So teenager take it casually.But in middle class family parents do stop their children from such things. Parents stop them from the beginning they know the ill effects of intoxicatin and try to educate them about the major disadvantages And children also know that their parents are right and children and so the children also obey their parents so they don’t take it casually. APPENDIX-4 INTERVIEW 4 Date : 18. 04. 2013 Name : TARUN GUPTA place : contacted in person Age : 23Sex : MALE Occupation :STUDYING IN PUNE LAW UNIVERSITY QUESTION 1: In your view why the consumption of intoxication is prevalent in youth or teenagers? ANSWER :Because it makes me feel good it help me to decrease my tension . it gives me pleasure. And if I don’t get get to intoxicate I become very nervous. QUESTION 2: what role society play in making the youth drifted towards intoxication? ANSWER : I don’t care about society I care about myself. QUESTION 3. why youth take the consumption of intoxication very casually? ANSWER :Because when I am free I like to do it.Because by doing it my time passes and I get pleasure too. QUESTION 4: what are the preventive measures taken by the government till today? ANSWER : Government have introduce many measures to stop intoxication but no one is following so I don’t care about any measures which would stop me from doing this. QUESTION 5: what should be the preventive measure should be taken to eradicate the consumption of intoxication in near future? ANSWER : I don’t know though I am addicted I don’t want any preventive measure which will produce hindrance . III. IMAPCT OF INTOXICATIONImpact of this on society When people get intoxicated they find themselves busy in their own life. They don’t bother what’s happening in near their surround ing and they don’t care about it. They just indulge themselves in their intoxication activity as a result of this they don’t contribute to the society. They don’t even support society for it’s upliftment. As a result, the society doesn’t changes and becomes constant. They are least bothered about the circumstances and problems prevalent in the society and the backdrops. So, they give more preference to their ownslves and no one else.They build their own world and pleased to be live in their so called different world. The inference made from this is that the very part of the machine i. e. the society become functionless as the part of the machine become restless by the acts of the intoxicated people. Therefore, the society’s growth of humanity is redusing day by day and the touch of humanity also decreases. This lead to imbalance and imperfection in the society. Impact on their career People who are indulge in intoxication focus on study very less which leads to their failure.They do not follow the schedule because they when they consume alcohol the brain is generally out of order and intoxication also effects the nervous system . so the student can’t concentrate on study. Intoxication creates groupism and when they start groupism they can’t study anymore. They lead a stressfull life. The addicts lose their professional and educational capabilities, self-dignity, and get involved in serious or petty criminal activities. The sole aim in life of an addict becomes the procurement and use of drugs. Other aims and objectives in life are thrown by the roadside.This is the main reason of unemployment. Impact on health speech, euphoria, impaired balance, loss of muscle coordination (ataxia), flushed face, dehydration, vomiting, reddened eyes,  reduced inhibitions, and erratic behavior. Sufficiently high levels of blood-borne alcohol will cause  coma  and death from the depressive effects of alcohol upon theà ‚  central nervous system. They become aggressive and transfer their anger to another person. This is the reason of domestic violence. TABLE OF CONTENT : 1. INTRODUCTION 2. INTOXICATION CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS 3. IMPACT OF INTOXICATION 4. PREVENTIVE MEASURE . APPENDICES : 6. 1 APPENDIX 1 6. 2 APPENDIX 2 6. 3 APPENDIX 3 6. 4 APPENDIX 4 6. 5 6. CONCLUSION 6. 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION : Intoxication is state of being drunk or in influence of such substance which affect our mental stability in such a way that our reasonability of mind is affected as well as our body. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY : DOCTRIONAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND QUESTIONAIRRE AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The study aims to know why the youth is under the trap of intoxication and what is the impact made by them by their acts on the society, their profession, family and friends.It also aims to know the legal grounding nature of the consumption and the methods to way forward the eradication of this evils called intoxication. Hence, we cou ld able to make the society evil free and functioned. SOURCE OF DATA: The following secondary sources of data have been used in the project: 1. ooks 2. Website 3. Magazine HYPOTHESIS : Due to societal influence addiction to intoxication initiated through a chain of events such as peer pressure, family influence or personal deviance ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am feeling highly elated to work on the topic â€Å"addiction to intoxicants†. nder the guidance of my SOCIOLOGY teacher. I am very grateful to his for the exemplary guidance. I would like to enlighten my readers regarding this topic and I hope I have tried my best to pave the way for bringing more luminosity to this topic. I also want to thank all of my friends, without whose cooperation this project was not possible. Apart from all these, I want to give special thanks to the librarian of my university who made every relevant materials regarding to my topic available to me at the time of my busy research work and gave me assistan ce.And at last I am very much obliged to the God who provided me the potential for the rigorous research work. At finally yet importantly I would like to thank my parents for the financial support. Kumari arpita 1st year CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY A PROJECT ON Addiction of intoxicants Subject: – Sociology Submitted To:- Sangeet Kumar Submitted By:- Kumari Arpita Roll No:-745. 2nd semester, 1st year

Friday, January 3, 2020

Minimalism in Cat in the Rain Essay - 1030 Words

Minimalism is a style of writing where the author presents a plot in brevity with few details and allows the reader to draw his or her conclusions. Few noteworthy characteristics of minimalistic fiction include use of plain language, short and simple sentences, symbolism, objective viewpoint, omission of character description, and unresolved main conflict. Well-known American writer, Ernest Hemingway, in his short story â€Å"Cat in the Rain† employs this minimalistic aesthetics effectively to achieve the theme of loneliness along with the notions such as nihilism and the lack of resolution. The use of short, simple sentences, mostly without descriptive language, is a distinctive element of minimalism which helps to emphasize the theme of†¦show more content†¦This roaming lifestyle inhibits her from starting a family and having children. Consequently, she selfishly desires domestic lifestyle. She states â€Å"I want to eat at a table with my own silver and I want candles. And I want it to be spring and I want to brush my hair out in front of a mirror and I want a kitty and I want some new clothes † (Hemingway 535). The lack of domesticity in her life is then highlighted when the maid specifically brings a â€Å"tortoise-shell cat,† a multicolor cat which can only be found as a female. Thereby, the cat can be inferred to represent the American wife’s desire to be feminine and be a housewife. The American wife’s desire to have cat so badly also indicates that she wants the cat for company so she will not be alone physically. Besides the cat representing physical solitude, Hemingway also uses the cat to project the American wife’s inner emotions and her desire for love. Hemingway introduces the cat by stating that â€Å"a cat was crouched under one of the dripping green tables. The cat was trying to make herself so compact that she would not be dripped on† (Hemingway 533). Like the cat in the rain, the wife is ostracized by her husband, not really loved or taken care of and struggling to stay out of the gloomy cloud of isolation looming around her. Taking this notion into consideration, the cat in the story ultimately represents the protagonist who like the cat is stuck alone under the roof of hotel. Hemingway further channels

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Using the French Expression Bien Sûr

Bien sà »r,  pronounced  byeh(n) soor, is an adverb that means literally very sure, but in everyday use, this French phrase  has come to mean of course and certainly. It is one of the most common idiomatic expressions in the French language, and other European speakers have informally adopted it as well. There are also more colloquial translations of  bien sà »r  that reveal its  versatility. These include: Oh yes  Sure I will  Of course, we do  Sure  Sure thing  By all meansYes indeed  I sure will Bien Sà »r as a Response The French expression bien sà »r  is most often used as a stand-alone response to a question or statement: Est-ce que tu viens à   la fà ªte ?   Are you coming to the party?Bien sà »r !   Of course! Un moment, sil vous plaà ®t.   Just a moment, please.Bien sà »r.   Of course. Tu me donnes mon stylo ?   Can you give me my pen?Bien  sà »r, voici.   Sure, here it is. Bien Sà »r as a Link ​Bien sà »r can link clauses and ideas: Jai besoin de ton assistance, et bien sà »r je te payerai.   I need your help, and of course Ill pay you. Nous allons visiter le monument franà §ais le plus cà ©là ¨bre, je parle bien sà »r de la tour Eiffel.   Were going to visit the most famous French monument; Im speaking of course about the Eiffel Tower. The Ironic Bien Sà »r The phrase can also be used ironically: Je meurs de faim, et bien sà »r jai oublià © mon portefeuille.   Im starving  and of course I forgot my wallet. Nous sommes pressà ©s, et Lise est en retard, bien sà »r.   We in a hurry, and Lise, of course, is running late. Bien Sà »r Que Oui / Bien Sà »r Que Non Bien sà »r can be followed by que oui to be even more emphatic (of course yes)  or que non  (of course not): Tu le veux ?   Do you want it?Bien sà »r que oui.   I certainly do. / Of course I do. Ne vas-tu pas y aller ? Arent you going to go?Bien sà »r que non.   Of course not. The Conjunctive  Bien Sà »r Que Bien sà »r can also be followed by que plus a subordinate clause.  Bien  sà »r  que  functions as a conjunction: Bien sà »r quil va à   luniversità ©.   Of course hes going to college. Bien sà »r que nous mangerons ensemble.   Of course well eat together. Bien sà »r quelle navait rien compris  !   Of course, she hadnt understood a thing! Synonyms of Bien Sà »r bien entendu  Ã‚  of course, certainlymais oui, bien sà »r   yes, of coursecertainement  Ã‚  certainlycertes  Ã‚  certainly, admittedly, of courseà ©videmment  Ã‚  obviouslyforcà ©ment  Ã‚  necessarily, inevitablynaturellement  Ã‚  naturally, of course